英语 | across , over 和 through 的用法区 - 英语众评
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英语 | across , over 和 through 的用法区

Across, over or through?from English Grammar Today

Across

We use across as a preposition (prep) and an adverb (adv). Across means on the other side of something, or from one side to the other of something which has sides or limits such as a city, road or river:

We took a boat [PREP]across the river.

[PREP]Across the room, she could see some old friends. She got up and went to join them.英语 | across , over 和 through 的用法区

My neighbour came [ADV]across to see me this morning to complain about our cat.

The road was so busy that we found it difficult to get [ADV]across.

We also use across when something touches or stretches from one side to another:

The Ponte Vecchio is a beautiful old bridge across the river Arno in Florence.

She divided the page by drawing a red line across it. Then she cut it in two.

Especially in American English, across from is used to refer to people or objects being ‘opposite’ or ‘on the other side’:

The pharmacy is across from the Town Hall.

Helen’s office is just across from mine.

We use across to emphasise that something is happening at the same time in many places, e.g. within an organisation, a city or a country:

She’s opened coffee shops across the city and they’re very successful.

Across the country, people are coming out to vote for a new president.

We also use across to refer to the width or diagonal measurement of something:

The size of a television screen is measured from the higher corner of one side to the lower corner of the other side, that is, from one corner across to the opposite corner.

Across comes after measurements when we talk about diameter or width:

The building is 157 metres long, 92 metres across and the façade is 68 metres wide.

Over

We use over as a preposition and an adverb to refer to something at a higher position than something else, sometimes involving movement from one side to another:

From the castle tower, you can see [PREP]over the whole city.

We toasted marshmallows [PREP]over the fire.

We drove high up [PREP]over the mountains on a narrow dangerous road.

Suddenly a plane flew [ADV]over and dropped hundreds of leaflets.

Come over often means to come to the speaker’s home:

You must come [ADV]over and have dinner with us some time.

Especially when we use them as adverbs, over can mean the same as across:

We walked over to the shop. (or We walked across to the shop – the shop is on the other side of the road)

I was going across to say hello when I realised that I couldn’t remember his name. (or I was goingover to say … meaning ‘to the other side of the street or room’)

 

Across or through?

Movement

When we talk about movement from one side to another but ‘in something’, such as long grass or a forest, we use through instead of across:

I love walking through the forest. (through stresses being in the forest as I walk)

Not: I love walking across the forest.

When my dog runs through long grass, it’s difficult to find him. (through stresses that the dog is in the grass)

Not: When my dog runs across long grass …

Time

When referring to a period of time from start to finish, American English speakers often use throughwhere British English speakers say from … to/till …:

The office is open Monday through Friday, 9 am–5 pm. (preferred British form: from Monday to Friday)

Warning:

We use over, not through, to refer to periods of time from start to finish when a number is specified (of days, weeks, etc.):

Over the last few days, I have been thinking a lot about quitting my job.

 

Across, over and through: typical errors

When moving from one side to another while surrounded by something, we use through not across:

We cycled through a number of small villages.

Not: We cycled across a number of small villages.

When we talk about something extending or moving from one side to another, we use across not on:

The papers were spread across the table.

Not: The papers were spread on the table.

We don’t use through when we’re talking about periods of time from start to finish and we mention a specific number of days, weeks, etc:

We haven’t seen each other much over the last four years.

Not: We haven’t seen each other much through the last four years.

 

中文解释:

across

across 可作介词(prep)和副词(adv)。

across 意思是在某物的另一边,或者从一边到某物的另一边。这些物体有边或者界限,比如城市、马路、河流。

We took a boat across the river.(across 是介词)

Across the room, she could see some old friends. She got up and went to join them.(across 是介词)

My neighbour came across to see me this morning to complain about our cat.(across 是副词)

The road was so busy that we found it difficult to get across.(across 是副词)

当某物接触到另一边或从一边延伸到另一边时,也使用 across 。

The Ponte Vecchio is a beautiful old bridge across the river Arno in Florence.

She divided the page by drawing a red line across it. Then she cut it in two.

短语 across from 被用来提到在“对面,另一边”的人或物,尤其在美式英语中会这样用。

The pharmacy is across from the Town Hall.

Helen’s office is just across from mine.

across 也被用来强调某事同时发生在很多地方,比如:一个组织、一个城市或一个国家内。

She’s opened coffee shops across the city and they’re very successful.

Across the country, people are coming out to vote for a new president.

当提到某物的宽度或对角线度量时,也会用到 across 。

The size of a television screen is measured from the higher corner of one side to the lower corner of the other side, that is, from one corner across to the opposite corner.

当我们谈论直径或宽度时,across 使用在度量值后面。

The building is 157 meters long, 92 metres across and the facade is 68 metres wide.

over

over 可作介词(prep)和副词(adv),表示一个物体的位置比别的物体更高,有时也会涉及从一边到另一边的移动。

From the castle tower, you can see over the whole city.(over 是介词)

We toasted marshmallows over the fire.(over 是介词)

We drove high up over the mountains on a narrow dangerous road.(over 是副词)

Suddenly a plane flew over and dropped hundreds of leaflets.(over 是副词)

短语 come over 经常表示来到“讲话者”的家里。

You must come over and have dinner with us some time.(over 是副词)

over 的意思与 across 相近,尤其当 over 作副词使用时。

We walked over to the shop.(或者 We walked across to the shop – 商店在马路对面)

I was going across to say hello when I realised that I couldn’t remember his name.(或者 I was going over to say … 意思是:到街道或房间的另一边)


使用across 还是 through?

关于运动

当我们谈到在事物内部、从一边到另一边的运动时(比如高草、森林等),我们使用 through 代替 across:

正:I love walking through the forest.(through 强调走在森林内部)

误:I love walking across the forest.

正:When my dog runs through long grass, it’s difficult to find him.(through 强调狗在草内部)

误:When my dog runs across long grass …

关于时间

当提到从开始到结束的一段时间,美式英语经常用 through,而英式英语常用 from … to / till … 表示。

The office is open Monday through Friday, 9 am-5 pm.(美式英语)

The office is open from Monday to Friday, 9 am-5 pm.(英式英语)

注意:当提到指定数字的从开始到结束的时间段时,我们使用 over,不用 through 。

Over the last few days, I have been thinking a lot about quitting my job.


across,over 和 through 典型用法错误:

1. 当从一边移动到另一边,周围有物体包围时,我们使用 through,不用 across 。

We cycled through a number of small villages.

2. 当谈论某物从一边延伸或运动到另一边时,我们使用 across,不用 on 。

正:The papers were spread across the table.

误:The papers were spread on the table.

3. 当谈论从开始到结束的时间,并且明确了 天、周、月等数量时,我们使用 over,不用 through 。

正:We haven’t seen each other much over the last four years.

误:We haven’t seen each other much through the last four years.

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